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ndra almjtm3 llmraa fy wd3ya a3a9a ala ayn

ndra almjtm3 llmraa  fy wd3ya a3a9a ala ayn

b9lm :bghdad ahwary

r2ys jm3ya alarada llachkhas fy wd3ya a3a9a bmdyna bny ansar
wr2ys chbka aljm3yat al3amla fy mjal ala3a9a baljha alchr9ya


an al3w9 aljsdy aw aldhny ychkl 3b2a t9yla 3la almraa w3a2ltha lma maychkl mn khswsya fy syr 7yatha altby3ya fy alt3lym wal3ml walzwaj wbna2 al3a2la, wan almraa fy wd3ya a3a9a tb9a asyra al7aja wal3a2la wmrthna brwf al3a2la alt9afya walmadya wtby3a nmtya m3ychtha fy al9rya aw almdyna waltrabt alasry bynha lastmrar alahtmam balmraa alm3a9a wkhswsa dwat al3w9 aldhny.


falmraa fy wd3ya a3a9a t3ych t7dyat aktr mn alrjl , falmjtm3 ynr ilyha nra dwnya tkhtlf 3n alnra alty y7mlha lldkr, falktyr mnhn mhmchat, whdh almraa mtlwb mnha lys f9t khdma nfsha wal9yam b7ajatha kma ytlb mn alrjl, bl an t9wm bal3naya bmn 7wlha, wa7yana t9wm bkl a3ba2 albyt wkhdma jmy3 afrad alasra, balidafa ila inkar wjwdha mn 9bl dwyha 7ta la t2tr 3la ba9y afrad alasra fy alzwaj wlma malha mn wsma ajtma3ya.

an t3ryf ala3a9a hw ychml mstl7 alachkhas dwy ali3a9a kl mn y3anwn mn 3ahat twyla alamd bdnya aw 39lya aw 7sya aw dhnya tmn3hm ldy alt3aml m3 mkhtlf al7wajz mn almcharka bswra kamla wf3ala 3ly 9dm almsawaa m3 alakhryn.

w9d t7dt ali3a9a bsbb almrd ffy 3am 1980m nchrt mnma als7a al3almya altsnyf aldwly lld3f al3jz wali3a9a waldy y3tbr m7awla lt9dym tsnyf mnm llnta2j waltatyrat almtslsla alty t7dt ntyja almrd. ali3a9a 9bl an t7dt tmr bmra7l aw slsla mn ala7dat alhama why: mrd d3f 3jz a3a9a.

an asbab al3w9 ktyra mnha wlady mn mtlazmat wratya kdmwr aldmagh alwlady aw altchwhat alkhl9ya ntyja asaba alam al7aml bamrad atna2 ftra al7ml aw mtlazma dawn (almnghwlya) wghyrha mn alamrad alwratya aw amrad atna2 altfwla kchll alatfal aw althabat als7aya aldmaghya aw alfayrwsat alty twdy ala tlyf al7bl alchwky aw 7wadt alsyarat aw als9wt mn 3lw aw kma fy al3ra9 mn 7wadt al7rwb walarhab walanfjarat walalgham wakhta2 alsla7 alnary almtwajd fy almnzl bktra.

wbma an alzwaj walamwma hma mn almmnw3at 3mlya wnw3ya balnsba llmraa dat ali3a9a finhma y3tbran a3ba2 kamna lan h2la2 alnsa2 la ytw93 an ytzwjn wla ytswr 3ada anhn 9adrat 3la ksb rz9hn bmfrdhn. wghalba ma tncha alnsa2 dwat ali3a9a bmfhwm ynt9s mn aldat m3 swra slbya 3n aldat. wkma dkr anfa tsb7 h2la2 alnsa2 bla adwar t9ryba bghd alnr 3n 7alat chada wnadra llb3d mnhn.

an almghrb yft9d ala a7sa2yat d9y9a 3n alachkhas fy wd3ya a3a9a bsfa 3ama w 3dd alnsa2 fy wd3ya a3a9a bsfa khasa

an alb7t alwtny 7wl ali3a9a aldy 9amt bh ktaba aldwla almklfa balasra sna 2005wrghm 3dm rahnya hdh alm3tyatwn7n fy sna 2012la nha hy alw7yda(7sb 3lmna) alty astt3na al3twr 3lyhawlna an ntkhyl kyf hy alwd3ya al7alya amam altzayd aldymghrafy aldy 3rfh almghrb mn sna 2005 ila alan)):

3dd alachkhas fy wd3ya i3a9a ychkl % 5.12mn mjmw3 skan almghrb khlal chtnbr2004 ay ma y3adl mlywna w530 alf chkhs mn al3dd alijmaly llskan balmghrb w % 16 mnhm y3ychwn fy alskn ghyr alla2968% mn alatfal fy wd3ya ma byn 4 w15 sna i3a9a ghyr mtmdrsyn w87% mn aba2 h2la2 alatfal y3tbrwn ali3a9a sbba l3dm tmdrs atfalhm t3dr alwlwj lsw9 alchghl balnsba lma y3adl 255% mn alachkhas fy wd3ya i3a9a waldyn tfw9 a3marhm 15 sna539% mn h2la2 ghyr 9adryn 3la al3ml lasbab tbya 615% mn alachkhas fy wd3ya i3a9a lm ytmknwa mn iyjad 3ml12f9t % mn alachkhas fy wd3ya i3a9a mnkhrtwn fy alsndw9 alwtny lldman alajtma3y aw fy tamyn t3addy y3t9d 161 % mn alachkhas fy wd3ya i3a9a ban altmtlat walm3t9dat alsa2da fy m7ythm tchkl 7ajza landmajhm 3br 76% mn h2la2 3n ast7ala mcharkthm fy anchta mdrsya nsba 74% 3brwa 3n 3dm tmknhm mn mmarsa aya wyfa 355% sr7wa ban 7ajthm alasasya tkmn fy alastfada mn alkhdmat altbya 3br 552% 3n rghbthm fy al7swl 3la msa3dat malya lmwajha 7ajyathm alasasya 14% mn alachkhas albalghyn fy wd3ya i3a9a w7% mn aba2hm wawlya2hm ynkhrtwn fy jm3yat fa3la fy mjal ali3a9a.(4)

wrghm an aldstwr almghrby aljdyd 9d a9r msw2lya aldwla fy tamyn mstlzmat alm3ycha walskn walt3lym lkl almwatnyn bghd alnr 3n aljns wal3r9 walta2fa waldyn wakd 3la drwra r3aya alm3w9yn wan y9r b9anwn khas wlknh l7d alan lm yf3l lghyab alarada altchry3ya lbna2 mjtm3 al3dala alajtma3ya aldy hw a7d mrtkzat aldym9ratya al79y9ya.

an almraa fy wd3ya a3a9a hy aktr 3rda llastghlal aljnsy waljsdy w7ta latslm mn alarhabyn fy b3d ala7yan fy j3lha ant7arya wkm mn m3a9a lbst a7zma nasfa bdwn aradtha ww3yha. w9d astghl b3d d3af alnfws almtkhlfat al39lyat fy albgha2 walastghlal aljsdy fy ghyab alr9aba almjtm3ya wal9anwnya.

wmn aldrasat wmtab3a wsa2l ala3lam la7na an alnsa2 fy wd3ya a3a9a t9l frsthn fy alt3lym waltahyl a3ma hy 3nd alnsa2 al3adyat aw alrjal alm3a9yn, an h2la2 alnsa2 hn aktr 3rda llastghlal wal3nf aljnsy .

an 7alat alaghtsab alty t3rdt lha nsa2 m3a9at mnha ma tsbb fy 7alat 7ml winjab khasa fyma yt3l9 balnsa2 almsabat bi3a9a dhnya la tmknhn mn altmyyz byn alkhta wals7a.

an antchar hdh alahra yrj3 ila tkhly al3a2lat 3n bnatha almsabat bhda alnw3 mn ali3a9a wallwaty 3ada ma yrtmyn fy a7dan alchwar3 almly2a bald2ab albchrya in aljra2d wwsa2l ala3lam t7dtt fy alktyr mn almrat 3n 7alat aghtsab tt3rd lha alm3a9at dakhl alms7at wmrakz aliywa2 mma ydf3na ila altfkyr fy t3zyz wsa2l aldfa3 3n hdh alchry7a alty lmtha ali3a9a wlmha alahl wlmtha alw7wch albchrya alty la dmyr wla 39l lha.

wkdlk an frs 3dm t9bl alljw2 lldwl almt9dma 7sb syasa hdh aldwl- llnsa2 alm3a9at aktr mn alrjal. fmtla astralya trfd tlbat alljw2 alty t9dm mn 9bl alm3a9yn.

an almrah9at fy wd3ya a3a9a y3anyn mn kbt rhyb lmcha3rhn alty 3ada ma tdfn fy ala3ma9 ffy m3ahd altahylya ll3w9 aljsdy tjabh alm3lmat walmdrbat 7alat anfjar 3atfy llftyat alm3a9at allwaty 3ada ma yb7n bma yjwl bkhatrhn llm3lmat allwaty bdwrhn trbthn 3la9a wtyda balmtdrbat alm7rwmat mn almrah9a alty 3ada ma ttmyz bnmw aljanb al3atfy walwjdany llftyat allwaty 3ada ma yt7dtn 3n 7alat i3jab w3la9at 7mymya m3 a9ran2hn mn aldkwr alm3w9yn aldyn bdwrhm y3anwn mn kbt 3atfy.

waljdyr baldkr fy hda almjal 7sb alm3lmat walmdrbat fy m3ahd altdryb llm3a9yn w7sb alasttla3at wmchahdaty alchkhsya an almrah9at alm3w9at yrfd alt3byr 3n 7bhm atjah awlya2hn aw ikhwanhn fch3wrhn alda2m baln9s ywhmhn anhn mkrwhat wmrfwdat mn trf aljmy3 alsjn al3atfy aldy ykabdnh wrghm hdh al3watf fktyr mnhn nj7n fy alzwaj mn a9ranhn alm3a9yn aw alas7a2 mn a9rba2hn aw m3arfhn whnalk 9ss 7b ra23a strnha fy alasttla3at wfy almdwnat alalyktrwnya wfy m9ablty alkhasa lhn .wmnhn mn anjbt awlada 799wa nja7at bahra fy almjal aldrasy...

balnsba ll7ml wmda3fath llmraa alm3w9a alty tchkl t7dya lha wll3a2la walatba2 walmjtm3 .w t3tbr 9dya al7ml 3nd alamhat alm3a9at 7rkya aw dhnya mn al9daya almhma w9d tsbb lhn alktyr mn mn alm3anaa alnfsya walajtma3ya almtrtba 3la hdh al9dya 7yt in hdh al9dya m7kwma balatjahat almjtm3ya alty la t9tsr 3la 3ama alch3b bl tt3dah lnjdha ayda 3nd almtkhssyn alm3nyyn bhda alamr bma fyhm alatba2 kakhtsasy altwlyd walmstcharyn alnfsyyn wal3a2la walmjtm3.

wlkn aldrasat al7dyta atbtt an al7ml 3nd almraa alm3a9a hw 79 tby3y ada tm t7t r9aba mjtm3ya w3a2lya wtbya lsy9a ,kma an hnak drasa l (Westbrook.T. and Chinnery, D. ,1995 ) 9amt bm9arna tjarb r3aya alabna2 ma byn alamhat al3adyat wlamhat m3a9at 7rkya w9d ahrt alnta2j an alamhat alm3a9at 7rkya m3rdat aktr llmcha3r alslbya wrdwd alf3l ghyr aliyjabya . wbnfs alw9t f9d achart ila an 14% mn alm3a9at 7rkya tl9yn rdwd f3l iyjabya 3ndma a3ln 3n khbr 7mlhn m9abl 79% mn alamhat al3adyat allwaty tl9yn nfs rdwd alf3l alslbya mn alakhryn. kma an hnak 20% mn alamhat alm3a9at allaty 9am alatba2 bns7hn balijhad wbalm9abl lm tns7 ay am 3adya balijhad dmn aldrasa .

whnalk mtal 7y mn albrazyl , 7yt tklmt i7da alamhat fy albrazyl walty t3any mn isaba fy alnkha3 alchwky 3n almchakl alty wajhtha why ttmtl fy 3dm alw3y walm3rfa batarhda alamr 3la al7ml mn 9bl alatba2 wakhtsasy altahyl w9d dkrt mtala 3la dlk why anha hy alty kant twfr m3lwmat tkhssya 7wl isabtha ltbybtha akhsa2ya altwlyd 3ndma kant traj3ha atna2 ftra al7ml . tsttrd hdh alam 7dytha banha kant tzwd akhsa2ya altwlyd ayda balamwr alfsywlwjya 7wl isabtha bma fy dlk al7ala alwyfya lljhaz albwly waldwry wal79a29 7wl 9dratha walty kant mchwha wkant t3t9d altbyba ban hdh alisaba t2tr mbachra 3la al7ml (Bieler, R., 2005), kma ldyna fy almghrb aktr mn 7ala msjla wmwt9a lnsa2 m3a9at wldn wlada tby3a wrbyn atfal aswya2.

tlk alam alty wajht s3wbat 79y9ya ttlbt jhwda kbyra mnha lltghlb 3lyha bchkl chkhsy wirada 9wya. mn khlal hda almtal fin hnak mjmw3a mn alas2la alty ttr7 nfsha :

hl yttlb hda alamr mn kl am m3a9a 7rkya an tb7t 3n alm3lwmat almtkhssa ltna9ch bha almkhtsyn mn 7wlha

hl mn almftrd an t3any kl am m3a9a 7rkya hdh alm3anaa

alys mn 79 alam alm3a9a 7rkya an tjd ald3m almbachr mn alikhtsasyyn li3antha 3la mmarsa 79 mn 79w9ha (al7ml walamwma)

mma la chk fyh fin hnak ij7afa b79 hdh alf2a wla bd mn al3ml 3la tghyyr atjahat almjtm3 alslbya n7w 79 hdh alf2a bal7ml walamwma.

khatbt ( rwzanjyla bylr ) r2ysa alm3hd alamryky lli3a9a alamhat alm3a9at 7rkya balklmat altalya :

ida knt amraa m3a9a 7rkya,bghd alnr mn ay jz2 fy al3alm wlay 7dara tntmyn wldyk alrghba bal7ml, fla ttrdy,inh 79k ant w3lyk mwajha ay s3wbat t9ablk bhda alsdd, wa3lmy anh ldyk al9dra 3la t9yym mkhatr hda alamr. la td3y ay frd mn afrad almjtm3 an ytkhd al9rar nyaba 3nk, t9dmy, astmt3y bdlk alch3wr alra23 b7swlk 3la tfl aw tfla jmyla .(Bieler, R.,2005) .

mn alm3t9dat alkhat2a 7wl al7ml wali3a9a al7rkya 3nd alam ban atfal alamhat alm3a9at 7rkya yjb an y3anwa mn atar nfsya wajtma3ya 7ada bsbb ali3a9a alty t3anyha alam 3lma anh lm ytm t9dym ma ytbt s7a hda ala3t9ad. w3la alrghm mn 9la aldrasat alty ajryt 7wl hda almwdw3 ila anha lm td3m hda alm3t9d wa3tbrt an hda alm3t9d mjrd ray wantba3 3am la ystnd ila ay m3lwmat 3lmya b7tya (Buck, M., 1993).

wkdlk fin aldrasat alty 9amt bdrasa 3la9a alatfal bamhathm alm3a9at 7rkya fchlt fy an twt9 tlk alatar alslbya 3la alatfal bsbb i3a9a amhathm.( Hohmann, G., 1981) .

m3m alatba2 walnsa2 allaty y3anyn mn isabat alnkha3 alchwky y3t9dwn bdrwra tjnb al7ml, wntyja lhda ala3t9ad finna njd an awl2k alnsa2 y3anyn bchda ll7swl 3la tbyb aw 9abla lma lhda al7ml mn akhtar kma y3t9dwn - . fy 7yn an hnak drasa 7wl alnsa2 alm3a9at 7rkya akdt nta2jha an a7tmalya al7ml walwlada tby3ya wdwn mchakl warda wbnsb latkhtlf 3nha 3nd alnsa2 al3adyat . w9d ahrt aldrasa anh la twjd frw9 fy nsb 3dm itmam al7ml 3nd alnsa2 alm3a9at 7rkya m9arna bmjmw3a alnsa2 al3adyat .

l3l an 79w9 alam alm3a9a fy 7dana atfalh tchkl t7dy 9anwny wmjtm3y , wfy mjtm3tna al3rbya 9d tchkl wsmh ajtma3ya latfalhn ntyja aljhl almjtm3y wb3d ala3raf almnat9ya albalya. wl3l mn aktr almchakl alty twajh alamhat alm3a9at 7rkya walty lha w93 akbr mn 7jm ali3a9a aljsdya alty y3anyn mnha hy mchkla alatjahat almjtm3ya almj7fa b79hn mn khlal ala3t9ad b3dm ahlya alam alm3a9a 7rkya ll9yam bwajbatha kam wbanha b7aja lmn yr3aha la lmn tr3ah .wkdlk tjahl 79w9hn waltrkyz 3la 79w9 altfl wdlk btwfyr al3naya alkamla lh. whnak alktyr mn aldrasat alty al9t blalha 3la als7a alnfsya waljsmya latfal alamhat alm3a9at 7rkya wbtjahl mj7f b79 alam alm3a9a 7rkya bch3wr alamwma kay insana akhra 9adra 3la alinjab (Wates & Jade,1999).

khlal al39d almady hrt alktyr mn alaswat swa2 mn aldrasat aw wsa2l ali3lam awjm3yat 79w9 alatfal jmy3ha tnawlt alatfal aldy y9wmwn bmham alr3aya la9rba2hm al3ajzyn walmrda ldrja an i7da aldrasat wsft hda alamr balmasaa .

( Sidall,1994,P15) kma w ahrt drasat akhra aljanb alsy2 fy hda alamr w atrh 3la aljanb ali9tsady walajtma3y wlm tktf tlk aldrasat bdlk bl awst bal3dyd mn alamwr almtalba bald3m al3atfy walajtma3y wiyjad mrakz r3aya khasa lmtl h2la2 alatfal(Aldridge & Becker ,1996)

wl3lna fy wtnna al3rby walaslamy bswra 3ama w almghrb bsfa khasa bams al7aja lmtl hdh alitjahat alty mn chanha tghyyr nra almjtm3 alslbya atjah ali3a9a, wrf3 alt9a balnfs wt7fyz alhmm lkl amraa m3a9a mn khlal altrkyz 3la jwanb al9wa walkm alkbyr mn al9drat almwjwda wtbadl alkhbrat . whna la bd ly an adkr a7d alktb alra23a aldy str byn sf7ath -alty tjawzt altlatma2a sf7a syra i7da w3chryn amraa m3a9a mn 3da a9tar 3rbya tkhtyn al7wajz w799n injazat ra23a balrghm mn kl alt7dyat . mn aljdyr baldkr an alktab sdr fy byrwt sna2002 3n aljm3ya alwtnya l79w9 alm3a9 b3nwan nsa2 tkhtyn al7wajz- mn talyf jhda abw khlyl.

wmn aljwanb almchr9a fy mjal al3la9a byn alam alm3a9a 7rkya wtflha f9d hrt b3d alatjahat al7dyta walty trkz 3la ttwy3 altknwlwjya al7dyta walabtkarat alty mn chanha d3m wtwtyd al3la9a byn alam alm3a9a 7rkya wtflha.(Kirshbaum&Olkin,2002.

an alttwr altknwlwjy fy msanda almraa alm3a9a wtwfyr lha alajwa2 almsanda fy tshyl mhmtha ft7t ft7a jdyda lha fy 79ha altby3y fy mmarsa al7ml wal3ych bswra tby3ya wkma 3lyha al3ml wtwfyr lha frs al3ml almnasba l3w9ha w9dratha aljsdya wtwfyr alr3aya als7ya lha wlatfalha wald3m alajtma3y walnfsy wtwfyr msadr ald3m alastchary fy hda almjal wdrwra tdryb alam fy asttrayjya 7azma wtabth llt3aml m3 altfl fy dl twafr ald3m alrsmy wghyr alrsmy 3br mnmat almjtm3 almdny walh2yat alajtma3ya waldynya wt3awn alab wba9y afrad alasra.

in tmkyn ay chry7a m7rwma ysb7 mmkna w9abla llt79y9 3ndma tdrk almjmw3a dat al3la9a ban msal7ha la t3ta awlwya mn 9bl almjtm3 wtkmn almhma alasasya lhdh alchry7a fy tchkyl mjmw3at ala3tmad 3la aldat ll7swl 3la frsa walt3rd lldfa3 3n 79w9ha wjnba ila jnb m3 alt3byr 3n 79w9hakma t7taj hdh almjmw3at ila idrak ms2wlyatha wbdl jhwd jdya llwfa2 bhdh alms2wlyat wt9dym ald3m almtbadl lb3dha b3da n7w bna2 mjmw3a mtrabta tnr ila ma hw ab3d mn msal7ha alfrdya wtrkz ahtmamha 3la mnf3a alchry7a alaws3 fy almjtm3.

hnak mhr akhr mn mahr altmkyn ytmtl fy t9bl h2la2 alnsa2 li3a9thn wala3traf bha ysb7 khtwa 7ywya lttwyr alswra aldatya walt9a balnfs wfy m3m alawsat alajtma3ya fin ghalbya h2la2 alnsa2 la yjdn mtnfsa llt3byr 3n 7yathn aljnsya nra lan alnsa2 dwat ali3a9a la y3chn 7yathn aljnsya wnadra ma ytm alnr ilyhn llzwaj.

al7lwl almmkna a9tra7ha llmraa fy wd3ya a3a9a:

1- twfyr lha ratb ykyfha wt3yn al9adrat mnhn 3la ada2 b3d alwa2f bma ynasb 9drathn bma y7f kramthn wy3tyhn dwra ll7yaa alf3ala fy almjtm3.

2- alwswl ila almraf9 alt3lymya walr3aya als7ya:ghalba ma y3anyn alnsa2 alm3a9at mn alwlwj ily almrakz alt3lymya w als7ya wyjb tr7 ala3tbar fy incha2 hdh albnayat ltsnyf ali3a9a almkhtlfa aw tkmla alb3d mnha mn ajl wlwj ashl lhn mn trf hdh alf2at whnak khms f2at mn ali3a9at kant mhma lakhd i3a9tha fy ala3tbar mn ajl alwlwj lhdh albny alt7tya whdh alf2at hy:

a-alm3w9yn 39lya
b- ali3a9a al7rkya.
j - ali3a9a alsm3ya walnt9ya.
7 - alm3w9yn baljdam.
d-mt3dd alm3w9yn 7sya (almkfwfyn alsm w albkm).
h- mt3ddy ali3a9a.

3- frs al7swl 3la al3ml ldwy ali3a9a:yjb ichrak alnsa2 dwy ali3a9a fy kafa mraf9 al7yaa al3mlya alywmya tshyla 3lyhm wtmchya m3 nw3ya i3a9thm fy al7yaa f9d atbtt m3m aldrasat fy hda almjal an al3zla llachkhas dwy ali3a9a tzyd mn mrdhm alnfsy w t9wy al3dly mnh wlan alrfd l3ml almraa alm3a9a 9a2m 7ta alan fy b3d alm2ssat al3ama walkhasa lda fin alahtmam br3aya alnsa2 alm3a9at asb7 3amla jwhrya ymkn bwastth i7dat tghyyr mrghwb fy albna2 alajtma3y wala9tsady walwyfy llmjtm3 al3ra9ywdlk basttmar tlk alta9at albchrya alm3tla bma y799 lha ita7a alfrs walrwf alm3ychya almtsawya m3 b9ya afrad almjtm3 walmcharka fy 3mlya altnmya whn 9wa intajya ha2la ida tm lha altkhtyt al3lmy wal3mly aldy ytmcha w9drathn almtb9ya bdla mn an ykn kma w3b2a 3la almjtm3 al3ra9y.

4- alilmam baltchry3at waltshylat almta7a llachkhas dwy ali3a9a:tmchya m3 alistratyjyat w alsyasa alty t9wm bha alwzara alm3nya khasa fy 3mlya alt7sys w altw3ya b79w9 hdh alchry7a w al9wanyn almt3l9a bha lda yjb i3ta2 al3naya fy hda almjal llnsa2 dwy ali3a9a.

5- al9yam baldwr almkhss llnsa2 3mwma:mtl wd3hn fy almkan almnasb wichrakhn fy kl al9daya w aladwaralty t3ty lmtylathn lanh mn almftrd an tzal kafa al7wajz wal9wanyn alty tmn3 dmj almraa alm3a9a fy al3ml wawlha nra almjtm3 ilyha 3la anha 3dyma alfa2da wd3f alw3y al3am baldwr alham lha wita7a alfrs almtkaf2a fy t7ml ms2wlyatha fy mkhtlf almjalat alty ttla2m m3 9dratha almtb9ya aswa bzmylatha mn alswyat .

6- kma yjb an ykwn lha al79 fy tkaf2 alfrs whda la y3ny m3amla aljmy3 m3amla wa7da lan almsawaa byn alnsa2 alswyat walnsa2 alm3a9at ln tkwn wa7da whda amr mfrwgh mnh fakhtlaf al9drat hw aldy y7km hna wlkn jm3yhn ytf9n fy alttl3at almst9blya fy anhn ytmnyn an ykn 3nasr dat f3alya kbra .

7- kma an alnsa2 alm3a9at ykhtlfn fy nw3ya ali3a9a wdrjtha whda lh dwr kbyr fy t7dyhn lli3a9a mn na7ya wmn na7ya akhra almtalba b79hn bfrs al3ml alty ttnasb m3 9drathn almtb9ya wbtdrybhn 3la almharat almtnw3a alty tnf3hm fy al7yaa al3mlya bma ytnasb m3 alttwrat altknwlwjya.

8- wlhda yjb i3ada alnr fy altkhssat al7alya fy bramj altahyl ltkwn mrna tty7 llmraa alm3a9a b3d altkhrj frsa 3ml fy aktr mn 7rfa fy mjal tkhssha wal3naya bwd3 mkhtt chaml lltdryb bdla mn 7srha fy almhn alt9lydya.

wakhyra an hnalk mn y9wl yjb an n7l mchkla alaswya2 9bl altfkyr fy 'al3jza ay alm3a9yn 7sb t3byrhm wn9wl lhm sam7km allh an b3km ma za l lm ystw3b 79y9a dwr alansan aldy hw trwa almjtm3 al79y9ya kyfma kant 7alth als7ya anr ala 9draty al39lya wla tnr ala 3jzy wfy sbylh tchr3 al9wanyn wnd3 alasttratyjyat llbna2 mn ajl mjtm3 mzdhr y3ych fyh aljmy3 bdwn tmyyz wla a9sa2 - labna2na wa7fadna dwn tmyyz wla a9sa2 baljns wallwn .....

wkma nltms mn ahl al9rar fy mmlktna almghrbya als3yda ila tktyf almzyd mn aljhwd mn ajl ajraa kafa mwad alatfa9ya aldwlya llachkhas alm3a9yn 3la mstwa al9wanyn alwtnya almlzmaw3la mstwa altwasl al3mwmy lmzyd mn altw3ya walt7sys ltghyyr al39lyat waltmtlat alslbya w3la almzyd mn ala3tna2 balachkhas fy wd3ya a3a9a bsfa 3ama walmraa bsfa khasa khasa balbwady wala7ya2 alch3byaw3dm mrkza khdmatha balmdn alkbra w wal7wadr walt3b2a al9ta3ya alchamla ll9da2 3la alasbab wal3waml alm2dya lli3a9a khasa:altkhfyf mn 7wadt alsyrm7arba alttbyb alt9lydy walch3wdaal7d mn alakhta2 altbya wtwfyr alwlwj ila al3laj al3mwmy lljmy3 waltw3ya als7ya wghyrha .....



عدد الزيارات : 17395
تاريخ الإضافة : 2012-05-22


40
Setonurdianto
I never thought I would find such an eevydray topic so enthralling!

105
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18
: ѡ ɡ .. : ..( )


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